Aflatoxins in Duck Production-A Review

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  • Saurabh BanerjeeCollege of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Rajalaxmi BeheraICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Sonali PandaCollege of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Geeta Rani JenaCollege of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Prafulla Kumar NaikICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Bijaya Kumar SwainICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Surya Kant MishraICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • Chandra Kanta BeuraICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha


Aflatoxins, Duck, Mycotoxins


Aflatoxins are fungal toxins produced by fungi Aspergillus, mainlyA. flavus,A. parasiticusandA. nomius. The toxin include B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, and M2 of which B1 (AFB1) is the most carcinogenic and hazardous to animals, birds and human beings having high potential to cause aflatoxicosis. The primary exposure to AFB1 occurs via contaminated feed. High temperature, humidity in fields, improper storage and presence of broken grain facilitates mycotoxins accumulation in feed. Liver is the prime site of metabolism where AFB1 is converted by hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) enzymes into the reactive and electrophilic exo-AFB1-8, 9 epoxide(AFBO). AFBO binds to guanine residues resulting in DNA mutations and hepatic cancer. Ducks are unable to metabolize aflatoxins efficiently and hence considered to be highly susceptible for aflatoxicosis. Median lethal dose for ducklings is 0.34 to 0.56 mg/kg body weight compared with 6.5 to 16.5 mg/kg body weight for chicks. Aflatoxins negatively affect growth and production in ducks. Many researchers have documented elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT indicating hepatocyte damage in AFB1 intoxicated ducks. Aflatoxins causes granular degradation, cytoplasm vacuolation and fatty dystrophy of liver, negatively affects kidney function and suppresses the alternative complement activation pathway, suppressing immune system of ducks. Therefore, it is highly necessary to adopt strategies like proper storage of feed ingredients in cool and dry conditions to check fungal contamination, supplementation of antioxidants viz; vitamin E, selenium, beta-carotene, lycopene etc. in feed and use of mycotoxin binders for minimizing the toxin effect.


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Author Biographies

Saurabh Banerjee,College of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

M.V.Sc. Student, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine



Rajalaxmi Behera,ICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha


Sonali Panda,College of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine

Geeta Rani Jena,College of Veterinary Science, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Assistant Professor

Prafulla Kumar Naik,ICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Principal Scientist

Bijaya Kumar Swain,ICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Principal Scientist

Surya Kant Mishra,ICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Princiapl Scientist

Chandra Kanta Beura,ICAR-DPR Regional Station, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Principal Scientist


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How to Cite

Banerjee, S., Kumar, D., Behera, R., Panda, S., Jena, G. R., Naik, P. K., Swain, B. K., Mishra, S. K., & Beura, C. K. (2022). Aflatoxins in Duck Production-A Review: .Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition,39(3). Retrieved from //